Document Type : Original Article
School of Biology, Damghan University, Damghan, Iran
School of Biology, Damghan University, Damghan, Iran;Institute of Biological Sciences, Damghan University, Damghan, Iran
The unfavorable effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emitted by the cell phone on reproduction health are controversial. Metalloproteinases play a vital role in ovarian follicle development. This study was designed to investigate the effects of exposure to the cell phone on the gelatinolytic activity of in vitro cultured mouse pre-antral follicle.
Materials and Methods
In this experimental study, pre-antral follicles were isolated from ovaries of immature mice (n=16) and cultured with or without exposure to the cell phone in talking mode for 60 minutes. The gelatinolytic activity was evaluated through the zymography method, as well as the gene expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) namely MMP-2 and -9 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) namely, TIMP-1 and -2 by the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Also, in parallel, the development of pre-antral follicles was assessed.
The maturation parameters of the cell phone-exposed pre-antral follicles were significantly lower compared with the control group (P < 0.05). The gelatinolytic activity was significantly decreased in the cell phone-exposed pre- antral follicles compared with the control group (P < 0.05). The relative mRNA expression of the MMP-2 gene was significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the cell phone-exposed pre-antral follicles whereas the expression rate of the MMP-9 gene was considerably (P < 0.05) reduced when compared with the control group. Conversely, the relative expression of the TIMP-1 was markedly (P < 0.05) increased in the cell phone-exposed pre-antral follicles while the expression of the TIMP-2 was (P < 0.05) significantly diminished in comparison with the control group.
Exposure to the cell phone alters the growth and maturation rate of murine ovarian follicle through the changing in the expression of the MMP-2 and -9 genes, as well as the gelatinolytic activity.