Document Type : Review Article
Health Research Institute, Research Center of Thalassemia and Hemoglobinopathy, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
Today the regulatory role of microRNAs (miRs) is well characterized in many diverse cel- lular processes. MiR-based regulation is categorized under epigenetic regulatory mecha- nisms. These small non-coding RNAs participate in producing and maturing erythrocytes, expressing hematopoietic factors and regulating expression of globin genes by post-tran- scriptional gene silencing. The changes in expression of miRs (miR-144/-320/-451/-503) in thalassemic/sickle cells compared with normal erythrocytes may cause clinical severity. According to the suppressive effects of certain miRs (miR-15a/-16-1/-23a/-26b/-27a/-451) on a number of transcription factors [myeloblastosis oncogene (MYB), B-cell lymphoma 11A (BCL11A), GATA1, Krüppel-like factor 3 (KLF3) and specificity protein 1 (Sp1)] during β globin gene expression, It has been possible to increasing γ globin gene expression and fetal hemoglobin (HbF) production. Therefore, this strategy can be used as a novel therapy in infusing HbF and improving clinical complications of patients with hemoglobi- nopathies.