Investigation of Signals and Transcription Factors for The Generation of Female Germ-Like Cells

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran


Objective: Primordial germ cell (PGCs) lines are a source of a highly specialized type of cells, characteristically oocytes,
during female germline development in vivo. The oocyte growth begins in the transition from the primary follicle. It is
associated with dynamic changes in gene expression, but the gene-regulating signals and transcription factors that control oocyte growth remain unknown. We aim to investigate the differentiation potential of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (mMSCs) into female germ-like cells by testing several signals and transcription factors.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, mMSCs were extracted from mice femur bone using the flushing
technique. The cluster-differentiation (CD) of superficial mesenchymal markers was determined with flow cytometric analysis. We applied a set of transcription factors including retinoic acid (RA), titanium nanotubes (TNTs), and fibrin such as TNT-coated fibrin (F+TNT) formation and (RA+F+TNT) induction, and investigated the changes in gene, MVH/ DDX4, expression and functional screening using an in vitro mouse oocyte development condition. Germ cell markers expression, (MVH / DDX4), was analyzed with Immunocytochemistry staining, quantitative transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis, and Western blots.
Results: The expression of CD was confirmed by flow cytometry. The phase determination of the TNTs and F+TNT were confirmed using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. Remarkably, applying these transcription factors quickly induced pluripotent stem cells into oocyte-like cells that were sufficient to generate female germlike cells, growth, and maturation from mMSCs differentiation. These transcription factors formed oocyte-like cells specification of stem cells, epigenetic reprogramming, or meiosis and indicate that oocyte meiosis initiation and oocyte growth are not separable from the previous epigenetic reprogramming in stem cells in vitro.
Conclusion: Results suggested several transcription factors may apply for arranging oocyte-like cell growth and supplies an alternative source of in vitro maturation (IVM).


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