Document Type : Systematic Review
Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran, Iran
Department of Genetics, Reproductive Biomedical Research Centre, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran, Iran
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The major problems of patients with GC are the lack of proper response to the treatment, drug resistance and metastasis attributed to the presence of a subpopulation of cells inside the tumour that are called cancer stem cells (CSCs). In addition, deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been reported in different stages of GC. The aim of the present study is to determine and introduce miRNAs that contribute to regulation of stemness, metastasis and drug resistance in GC. A systematic review, we conducted data mining of available datasets and a review of previous studies to select miRNAs that target stemness, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and drug resistance. All selected miRNAs were analysed by R software to find a common miRNA target for all three processes. Then, the target prediction of miRNAs and their related signalling pathways were obtained by using bioinformatics tools, ONCO.IO and KEGG databases, respectively. We identified seven miRNAs (miR-34a, miR-23a, miR-27a, miR-30a, miR-19b, miR-107, miR-100) from our searching approach. These miRNAs regulate pathways that contribute to stemness, EMT and drug resistance in GC. Four (miR34a, miR-23a, miR-30a, and miR-100) had significant interactions with each other and 52 target genes among them, from which MYC, CDK6, NOTCH1, NOTCH2, SIRT1, CD44, CD24, and AXL were involved in the regulation of several biological processes. These data suggest that the three significant properties can be regulated by common miRNAs (hsa-miR-34a, hsa-miR-23a, hsa-miR-30a and hsa-miR-100). Hence, targeting selected miRNAs or their targets might be helpful to stop tumour growth and metastasis development, and increase tumour sensitivity to chemotherapy agents. This signature can also be assumed for early detection of metastasis or drug resistance. However, there should be additional experimentation to validate these results.