Possible Male Reproduction Complications after Coronavirus Pandemic

Document Type : Review Article


1 .Department of Embryology, Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran, Iran

2 .Department of Regenerative Medicine, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran, Iran

3 .Department of Reproductive Biotechnology, Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center, Royan Institute for Biotechnology, ACECR, Isfahan, Iran

4 4.Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Sechenov University, Moscow, Russia


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), as a severe respiratory disease, affects various tissues and organs. The specific SARS-CoV-2 receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), is highly expressed in male gonads. Thus, male reproductive tissues could be a potential target for virus colonization. We performed a comprehensive search in PubMed and Google Scholar to retrieve relevant articles published till 15 April 2021. The keywords used were: male fertility, male reproductive health, semen parameters, sex hormones, SARS-CoV-2, and COVID-19. Validated evidence about the adverse effects of the SARS-CoV-2 infection on the male reproductive system is limited and few studies have reported semen analysis results or presence of viral RNA in semen samples of infected men. Nevertheless, alterations in reproductive hormones such as decreased level of testosterone (T) with raised luteinizing hormone (LH) have been reported in some patients. Although the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the male reproduction health remains unclear, evidence suggests that male gonads may be potentially vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this article, we discussed the possible impacts of COVID-19 on male gonads, sex hormones, and semen quality and suggested preventive solutions.