Document Type : Original Article
Department of Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, Institute for Medical Biotechnology, National Institute of Genetic Engineering tyand Biotechnology (NIGEB), Tehran, Iran;Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of
Department of Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, Institute for Medical Biotechnology, National Institute of Genetic Engineering tyand Biotechnology (NIGEB), Tehran, Iran
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) play important roles in embryonic heart development. Also, two epigenetic modifying molecules, 5ˊ-azacytidine (5ˊ-Aza) and valproic acid (VPA) induce cardiomyogenesis in the infarcted heart. In this study, we first evaluated the role of BMP4 and bFGF in cardiac trans-differentiation and then the effectiveness of 5´-Aza and VPA in reprogramming and cardiac differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs).
Materials and Methods
In this experimental study, human ADSCs were isolated by collagenase I digestion. For cardiac differentiation, third to fifth-passaged ADSCs were treated with BMP4 alone or a combination of BMP4 and bFGF with or without 5ˊ-Aza and VPA pre-treatment. After 21 days, the expression of cardiac-specific markers was evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative real-time PCR, immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry and western blot analyses.
BMP4 and more prominently a combination of BMP4 and bFGF induced cardiac differentiation of human ADSCs. Epigenetic modification of the ADSCs by 5ˊ-Aza and VPA significantly upregulated the expression of OCT4A, SOX2, NANOG, Brachyury/T and GATA4 but downregulated GSC and NES mRNAs. Furthermore, pre-treatment with 5ˊ-Aza and VPA upregulated the expression of TBX5, ANF, CX43 and CXCR4 mRNAs in three-week differentiated ADSCs but downregulated the expression of some cardiac-specific genes and decreased the population of cardiac troponin I-expressing cells.
Our findings demonstrated the inductive role of BMP4 and especially BMP4 and bFGF combination in cardiac trans-differentiation of human ADSCs. Treatment with 5ˊ-Aza and VPA reprogrammed ADSCs toward a more pluripotent state and increased tendency of the ADSCs for mesodermal differentiation. Although pre-treatment with 5ˊ-Aza and VPA counteracted the cardiogenic effects of BMP4 and bFGF, it may be in favor of migration, engraftment and survival of the ADSCs after transplantation.