Document Type : Original Article
Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran;Department of Endocrinology and Female Infertility at Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center, Royan Institute for Re
Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
Department of Endocrinology and Female Infertility at Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran, Iran
Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
Unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA) is one of the main complications of pregnancy which is usually defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses before the 20th week of gestation without a known cause. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic factor and shown, along with its receptors (VEGFR1, 2), to play important roles in several physiologic processes including reproduction. The aim of the present study was to analyze gene expression of VEGF and VEGF receptors in endometrium of patients with a history of URSA compared with normal fertile women. In addition, serum VEGF concentration was assessed and compared between the two groups at the same time.
Materials and Methods
In this case control study, endometrial and blood samples were obtained between day 19thand 24th of menstrual cycle (window of implantation) from 10 women with a history of URSA (case group) and 6 fertile women who had at least one successful pregnancy (control group). Expression of VEGF and VEGFRs was studied by reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and then quantified by real time PCR. Normalization of expression levels was done by comparison with beta-actin expression level as an internal control. Relative VEGF, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 expression quantities were compared between the two groups. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for serum VEGF assay.
VEGF, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 gene expression was detected in endometrial samples of both groups. The mean relative expression of VEGF gene was lower in the case group compared with control women, however, both VEGF receptors were expressed higher in endometrium of the case group. In addition, the serum level of VEGF was significantly higher in the case group compared with the controls.
Alteration in gene expression of VEGF and its receptors in endometrium and changes of serum VEGF might play important roles in pathogenesis of unexplained RSA.