The Synergistic Effect of Cold Atmospheric Plasma Mediated Gold Nanoparticles Conjugated with Indocyanine Green as An Innovative Approach to Cooperation with Radiotherapy

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

2 Medical Physics Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

3 Department of Medical Nanotechnology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

4 Cancer Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran


The multimodality treatment of cancer provides a secure and effective approach to improve the outcome
of treatments. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) has got attention because of selectively target and kills cancer cells.
Likewise, gold nanoparticles (GNP) have been introduced as a radiosensitizer and drug delivery with high efficacy and
low toxicity in cancer treatment. Conjugating GNP with indocyanine green (ICG) can develop a multifunctional drug
to enhance radio and photosensitivity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anticancer effects of GNP@ICG in
radiotherapy (RT) and CAP on DFW melanoma cancer and HFF fibroblast normal cell lines.

Materials and Methods:
In this experimental study, the cells were irradiated to RT and CAP, alone and in combination
with or without GNP@ICG at various time sequences between RT and CAP. Apoptosis Annexin V/PI, MTT, and colony
formation assays evaluated the therapeutic effect. Finally, the index of synergism was calculated to compare the results.
Results: Most crucially, the cell viability assay showed that RT was less toxic to tumors and normal cells, but CAP
showed a significant anti-tumor effect on melanoma cells with selective toxicity. In addition, cold plasma sensitized
melanoma cells to radiotherapy so increasing treatment efficiency. This effect is enhanced with GNP@ICG. In
comparison to RT alone, the data showed that combination treatment greatly decreased monolayer cell colonization
and boosted apoptotic induction.

The results provide new insights into the development of better approaches in radiotherapy of melanoma
cells assisted plasma and nanomedicine.


Main Subjects

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