Assessment of Cytotoxicity and Odontogenic/Osteogenic Differentiation Potential of Nano-Dentine Cement Against Stem Cells from Apical Papilla

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Oral and Dental Diseases Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran

2 Department of Animal Biotechnology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Biotechnology, ACECR, Isfahan, Iran

3 Pharmacology Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran

4 Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.



Assessment of the cytotoxicity of novel calcium silicate-based cement is imperative in endodontics. This
experimental study aimed to assess the cytotoxicity and odontogenic/osteogenic differentiation potential of a new
calcium silicate/pectin cement called Nano-dentine against stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs).

Materials and Methods

In this experimental study, the cement powder was synthesized by the sol-gel technique.
Zirconium oxide was added as opacifier and Pectin, a plant-based polymer, and calcium chloride as the liquid to
prepare the nano-based dental cement. Thirty-six root canal dentin blocks of human extracted single-canal premolars
with 2 mm height, flared with #1, 2 and 3 Gates-Glidden drills were used to prepare the cement specimens. The
cement, namely mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), Biodentine, and the Nano-dentine were mixed according to the
manufacturers’ instructions and applied to the roots of canal dentin blocks. The cytotoxicity and odontogenic/osteogenic
potential of the cement were evaluated by using SCAPs.


SCAPs were characterized by the expression of routine mesenchymal cell markers and differentiation
potential to adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes. Cement displayed no significant differences in cytotoxicity or
calcified nodules formation. Gene expression analysis showed that all three types of cement induced significant downregulation
of COLA1; however, the new cement induced significant up-regulation of RUNX2 and SPP1 compared to
the control group and MTA. The new cement also induced significant up-regulation of TGFB1 and inducible nitric oxide
synthase (iNOS) compared with Biodentine and MTA.


The new Nano-dentin cement has higher odontogenic/osteogenic potential compared to Biodentine and
MTA for differentiation of SCAPs to adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes.


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