TGFß Gene Members and Their Regulatory Factors in Granulosa Compared to Cumulus Cells in PCOS: A Case-Control Study

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Faculty of Sciences and Advanced Technologies in Biology, University of Science and Culture, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Genetics, Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mousavi Hospital, School of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran

4 Zanjan Metabolic Diseases Research Center, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran

5 Department of Endocrinology and Female Infertility, Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran, Iran

6 Department of Embryology, Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran, Iran

7 Reproductive Epidemiology Research Center, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran, Iran

8 Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, School of Biology, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Objective: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily and its members that include bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15), anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), growth /differentiation factor-9 (GDF9), and their respective receptors: BMPR1A, BMPR1B, and BMPR2 have been implicated as key regulators in various aspects of ovarian function. The abnormal function of the ovaries is one of the main contributing factors to polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), so this study aimed to investigate the mRNA expression profile of these factors in granulosa (GCs) and cumulus cells (CCs) of those patients.
Materials and Methods: The case-control research was conducted on 30 women (15 infertile PCOS and 15 normo-ovulatory patients, 22≤age ≤38 years old) who underwent ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization (IVF)/ intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle. GCs/CCs were obtained during ovarian puncture. The expression analysis of the aforementioned genes was quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Results: AMH and BMPR1A expression levels were significantly increased in GCs of PCOS compared to the control group. In contrast, GDF9, BMP15, BMPR1B, and BMPR2 expressions were decreased. PCOS' CC showed the same expression patterns. GDF9 and AMH were effectively expressed in normal CCs, and BMP15 and BMPR1B in normal GCs (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Differential gene expression levels of AMH and its regulatory factors and their primary receptors were detected in granulosa and cumulus cells in PCOS women. Since the same antagonist protocol for ovarian stimulation was used in both PCOS and control groups, the results were independent of the protocols. This diversity in gene expression pattern may contribute to downstream pathways alteration of these genes, which are involved in oocyte competence and maturation.

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