Document Type : Original Article
Department of Life Science Engineering, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Research Center for New Technologies in Life Science Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, Amsterdam University Medical Centers-location Vumc and Academic
Department of Oral Cell Biology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), The University of Amsterdam and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Objective: In this study, we aimed to develop new Lipo-niosomes based nanoparticles loaded with Amphotericin B
(AmB) and Thymus Essential Oil (TEO) and test their effectiveness in the treatment of fungal-infected human adipose stem cells (hASCs).
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, optimal formulation of AmB and TEO loaded lipo-niosome (based on lipid-surfactant thin-film hydration method) was chemically, and biologically characterized. Therefore, encapsulation capacity, drug release, size, and the survival rate of cells with different concentrations of free and encapsulated AmB/ TEO were evaluated using the MTT method, and its antifungal activity was compared with conventional AmB.
Results: Lipo-Niosome containing Tween 60 surfactant: cholesterol: Dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC): Polyethylene glycol (PEG) with a ratio of 20:40:60:3 were chosen as optimal formulation. Lipo-Niosomes entrapment efficiency was %94.15. The drug release rate after 24 hours was %52, %54, and %48 for Lipo-AmB, Lipo-TEO, and Lipo-AmB/TEO, respectively. Physical and chemical characteristics of the Lipo-Niosomes particles indicated size of 200 nm and a dispersion index of 0.32 with a Zeta potential of -24.56 mv. Furthermore, no chemical interaction between drugs and nano-carriers was observed. The cell viability of adipose mesenchymal stem cells exposed to 50 μg/ml of free AmB, free TEO, and free AmB/TEO was %13.4, %58, and %36.9, respectively. Whereas the toxicity of the encapsulated formulas of these drugs was %48.9, %70.8, and %58.3 respectively. The toxicity of nanoparticles was very low (%8.5) at this concentration. Fluorescence microscopic images showed that the antifungal activity of Lipo- AmB/TEO was significantly higher than free formulas of AmB, TEO, and AmB/TEO.
Conclusion: In this study, we investigated the efficacy of the TEO/AmB combination, in both free and encapsulatedniosomal form, on the growth of fungal infected-hASCs. The results showed that the AmB/TEO-loaded Lipo-Niosomes can be suggested as a new efficient anti-fungal nano-system for patients treated with hASCs.