Fungal Infected Adipose Stem Cells: The Effects of Novel Lipo-Niosome Nanoparticles Loaded with Amphotericin B and Thymus Essential Oil

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Life Science Engineering, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Research Center for New Technologies in Life Science Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, Amsterdam University Medical Centers-location Vumc and Academic

5 Department of Oral Cell Biology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), The University of Amsterdam and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Abstract

Objective: In this study, we aimed to develop new Lipo-niosomes based nanoparticles loaded with Amphotericin B
(AmB) and Thymus Essential Oil (TEO) and test their effectiveness in the treatment of fungal-infected human adipose stem cells (hASCs).
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, optimal formulation of AmB and TEO loaded lipo-niosome (based on lipid-surfactant thin-film hydration method) was chemically, and biologically characterized. Therefore, encapsulation capacity, drug release, size, and the survival rate of cells with different concentrations of free and encapsulated AmB/ TEO were evaluated using the MTT method, and its antifungal activity was compared with conventional AmB.
Results: Lipo-Niosome containing Tween 60 surfactant: cholesterol: Dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC): Polyethylene glycol (PEG) with a ratio of 20:40:60:3 were chosen as optimal formulation. Lipo-Niosomes entrapment efficiency was %94.15. The drug release rate after 24 hours was %52, %54, and %48 for Lipo-AmB, Lipo-TEO, and Lipo-AmB/TEO, respectively. Physical and chemical characteristics of the Lipo-Niosomes particles indicated size of 200 nm and a dispersion index of 0.32 with a Zeta potential of -24.56 mv. Furthermore, no chemical interaction between drugs and nano-carriers was observed. The cell viability of adipose mesenchymal stem cells exposed to 50 μg/ml of free AmB, free TEO, and free AmB/TEO was %13.4, %58, and %36.9, respectively. Whereas the toxicity of the encapsulated formulas of these drugs was %48.9, %70.8, and %58.3 respectively. The toxicity of nanoparticles was very low (%8.5) at this concentration. Fluorescence microscopic images showed that the antifungal activity of Lipo- AmB/TEO was significantly higher than free formulas of AmB, TEO, and AmB/TEO.
Conclusion: In this study, we investigated the efficacy of the TEO/AmB combination, in both free and encapsulatedniosomal form, on the growth of fungal infected-hASCs. The results showed that the AmB/TEO-loaded Lipo-Niosomes can be suggested as a new efficient anti-fungal nano-system for patients treated with hASCs.

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