Document Type : Original Article
Burn Research Centre, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Department of Biomaterials, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Tehran, Iran
Hard Tissue Engineering Research Centre, Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Institute, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Soft Tissue Engineering Research Centre, Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Institute, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Department of Cell Engineering, Cell Science Research Centre, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran, Iran
Objective: Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) has considerable mechanical and biological properties that make it a good candidate for tissue engineering applications. PCL alongside proteins and polysaccharides, like gelatin (GEL) and chondroitin sulphate (CS), can be used to fabricate composite scaffolds that provide mechanical and biological requirements for skin tissue engineering scaffolds. The aim of this study was fabricating novel composite nanofibrous scaffold containing various ratios of GEL/CS and PCL using co-electrospinning process.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, PCL mixed with a GEL/CS blend has limitations in miscibility and the lack of a common solvent. Here, we electrospun PCL and GEL/CS coincide separately on the same drum by using different nozzles to create composite nanofibrous scaffolds with different ratios (2:1, 1:1 and 1:2) of GEL to CSPCL, and we mixed them at the micro/nanoscale. Morphology, porosity, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) absorption, chemical structure, mechanical property and in vitro bioactivity of the prepared composite scaffolds were analysed.
Results: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed beadless nanofibres at all ratios of GEL to CS-PCL. The
composite scaffolds (2:1, 1:1 and 1:2) had increased porosity compared to the PCL nanofibrous scaffolds, in addition to a significant increase in PBS absorption. The mechanical properties of the composite scaffolds were investigated under different conditions. The results demonstrated that all of the composite specimens had better strength when compared with the GEL/CS nanofibres. The increase in PCL ratio led to an increase in tensile strength of the nanofibres. Human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) were cultured on the fabricated composite scaffolds and evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2- yl)-5-(3 carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) analysis and SEM. The results showed the
bioactivity of these nanofibres and the potential for these scaffolds to be used for skin tissue engineering applications.
Conclusion: The fabricated co-electrospun composite scaffolds had higher porosity and PBS absorption in comparison
with the PCL nanofibrous scaffolds, in addition to significant improvements in mechanical properties under wet and dry
conditions compared to the GEL/CS scaffold.