Document Type : Letter to The Editor
Department of Regenerative Medicine, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran, Iran
Sernova Corp., London, Ontario, Canada
Laboratory of Pediatric Hepatology and Cell Therapy, Institute of Experimental and Clinical Research (IREC), Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium
Angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) in association with type II transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS2) is considered the main receptor of SARS-CoV-2. However, considering the clinical complications of COVID-19 in different organs, there is no strong association between the abundance of ACE2/TMPRSS2 co-expression and clinical features of the disease and the severity of complications. Since SARS-CoV-2 affects certain organs that lack or have low expression of ACE2/TMPRSS2, it may be possible that the virus employs other receptors for colonization and entry. Based on recent studies, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) can be a potential alternative receptor for SARS-CoV-2 entry. In this letter, supporting evidence proposed GRP78 as an alternative receptor in SARS-CoV-2 infection.