Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Cellular and Molecular Pathophysiology at A Glance

Document Type : Review Article


1 Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran, Iran

2 Clinical Islet Transplant Program and Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada


Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a disease where destruction of the insulin producing pancreatic beta-cells leads to increased blood sugar levels. Both genetic and environmental factors play a part in the development of T1DM. Currently, numerous loci are specified to be the responsible genetic factors for T1DM; however, the mechanisms of only a few of these genes are known. Although several environmental factors are presumed responsible for progression of T1DM, to date, most of their mechanisms remain undiscovered. After several years of hyperglycemia, late onsets of macrovascular (e.g., cardiovascular) and microvascular (e.g., neurological, ophthalmological, and renal) complications may occur. This review and accompanying figures provides an overview of the etiological factors for T1DM, its pathogenesis at the cellular level, and attributed complications.