Document Type : Original Article
Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran;Anatomical Science Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran
Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran
4Department of Anatomy, Afzalipour School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
Implantation failure is an obstacle in assisted reproduction techniques (ART). Calcitonin is a molecules involved in uterine receptivity and embryo implantation. Melatonin can promote embryo quality and improve implantation. This study examines the effect of pretreatment of blastocysts with melatonin and calcitonin on heparin binding-epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) expression in murine endometrium.
Materials and Methods
In this experimental study, we collected 2-cell embryos from the oviducts of 1.5 day pregnant NMRI mice. Embryos were cultured to the blastocyst in GTM medium with or without 10-9 M melatonin. Pregnant and pseudo-pregnant mice received intraperitoneal (IP) injections of 2 IU calcitonin. After 24 hours, we transferred the cultured blastocysts into the uteri of pseudo-pregnant mice. Two days later, implantation sites were counted and we assessed the levels of HB-EGF mRNA and protein in the uteri of naturally pregnant and pseudo-pregnant mice by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot. Statistical analysis was performed with one-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey post hoc test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Melatonin pretreatment of blastocysts along with calcitonin administration significantly increased HB-EGF mRNA and protein (P < 0.001) in the endometrium of pseudo-pregnant mice. Administration of calcitonin in naturally pregnant mice significantly increased HB-EGF mRNA and protein levels (P < 0.001). Compared with the control group (2.6 ± 0.5), the average number of implantation sites in the melatonin group (4.6 ± 0.5, P < 0.05) and calcitonin group (7 ± 1, P < 0.001) significantly increased. There was a significant increase in implantation sites in the combined melatonin and calcitonin group (8.6 ± 0.5, P < 0.001). Calcitonin significantly enhanced calcitonin receptor mRNA (P < 0.001) and protein (P < 0.05) in the uteri of naturally pregnant and pseudo-pregnant mice.
Melatonin pretreated blastocysts along with calcitonin increased HB-EGF expression in the uteri of pseudo- pregnant mice. Calcitonin administration upregulated HB-EGF in uteri of naturally pregnant mice.