Document Type : Original Article
Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
Faculty of Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) plays an important role in cortical development during the fetal stages. Embryonic CSF (E-CSF) consists of numerous neurotrophic and growth factors that regulate neurogenesis, differentiation, and proliferation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multi-potential stem cells that can differentiate into mesenchymal and non-mesenchymal cells, including neural cells. This study evaluates the prenatal and postnatal effects of CSF on proliferation and neural differentiation of bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs) at gestational ages E19, E20, and the first day after birth (P1).
Materials and Methods
In this experimental study, we confirmed the mesenchymal nature of BM-MSCs according to their adherence properties and surface markers (CD44, CD73 and CD45). The multi-potential characteristics of BM- MSCs were verified by assessments of the osteogenic and adipogenic potentials of these cells. Under appropriate in vitro conditions, the BM-MSCs cultures were incubated with and without additional pre- and postnatal CSF. The MTT assay was used to quantify cellular proliferation and viability. Immunocytochemistry was used to study the expression of MAP-2 and β-III tubulin in the BM-MSCs. We used ImageJ software to measure the length of the neurites in the cultured cells.
BM-MSCs differentiated into neuronal cell types when exposed to basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF). Viability and proliferation of the BM-MSCs conditioned with E19, E20, and P1 CSF increased compared to the control group. We observed significantly elevated neural differentiation of the BM-MSCS cultured in the CSF-supplemented medium from E19 compared to cultures conditioned with E20 and P1 CSF group.
The results have confirmed that E19, E20, and P1 CSF could induce proliferation and differentiation of BM-MSCs though they are age dependent factors. The presented data support a significant, conductive role of CSF components in neuronal survival, proliferation, and differentiation.