Document Type : Original Article
Toxicology and Poisoning Research Center, Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran;Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University
Toxicology and Poisoning Research Center, Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran;Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Cent
Chlorpyrifos (CP) as an organophosphorus pesticide is thought to induce oxidative stress in human cells via producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) that leads to the presence of pathologic conditions due to apoptosis along with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition.This study aimed to evaluate the apoptotic effects of CP and to assess the protective potential of CeO2nanoparticle (CNP) and sodium selenite (SSe) by measuring cascades of apoptosis, oxidative stress, inflammation, and AChE inhibition in human isolated lymphocytes.
Materials and Methods
In the present experimental study, we examined the anti-oxidative and AChE activating potential of CNP and SSe in CP-treated human lymphocytes. Therefore, the lymphocytes were isolated and exposed to CP, CP+CNP, CP+SSe, and CP+CNP+SSe after a three-day incubation. Then tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) release, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) levels as inflammatory/oxidative stress indices along with AChE activity were assessed. In addition, the apoptotic process was measured by flow cytometry.
Results showed a significant reduction in the mortality rate, TNF-α, MPO activity, TBARS, and apoptosis rate in cells treated with CNP, SSe and their combination. Interestingly, both CNP and SSe were able to activate AChE which is inhibited by CP. The results supported the synergistic effect of CNP/SSe combination in the prevention of apoptosis along with oxidative stress and inflammatory cascade.
CP induces apoptosis in isolated human lymphocytes via oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators. CP firstly produces ROS, which leads to membrane phospholipid damage. The beneficial effects of CNP and SSe in reduction of CP-induced apoptosis and restoring AChE inhibition relate to their anti-oxidative potentials.